Covid-19 disease is highly transmissible and causes acute respiratory infections caused by Coronavirus-2 (SARS- CoV-2).
This virus emerged in Wuan, China, in late 2019, and spread throughout the world, and is therefore considered a Pandemic today.
This virus is genetically very similar to the already known bat virus (SARS), so it is thought that the bat may have been the reservoir and transmitter of the virus, but there is no certainty about this theory. The name SARS is the abbreviation for "severe acute respiratory syndrome", which means acute and severe respiratory syndrome.
WHAT DOES SCIENCE TELL US?
The new virus causing Covid-19 is known to be easily and quickly transmitted from person to person. We also know that there are no approved treatments for Covid-19 yet, only treatment for the symptoms. There are, however, reports of successful retroviral tests in the treatment of Covid-19, which had already been tested in previous epidemics with SARS-CoV and MERS CoV.
Coronavirus-2 belongs to a family of viruses with the name Coronaviridae, and has this name because of its peaked crown look.
We now know that the potential for SARS-CoV-2 contagion is much higher than previous SARS-CoV and MERS CoV viruses, and the mortality rates of the latter two were higher:
SARS CoV:SARS CoV: mortality rate - 9%.
MERS CoV: mortality rate - 35%
SARS CoV-2: Estimated mortality rate: 2.9%
This pandemic begins as a result of an incorrect assessment of the onset of contagion in the Hunan market in Wuan, China. In fact, various types of live animals such as shellfish, fish, bats, snakes and mice were sold at this market. At the beginning of Covid-19 disease the Chinese health authorities thought that only animal-human contagion existed, so they did not confine the infected. Later evidence of human-to-human contagion appeared, and so the Covid-19 began to spread across the planet.
The human-human contagion, we know today, occurs through the proximity to a contaminated person, by the secretions projected by coughing, sneezing, simple emanation of secretions from our respiratory system in drops or aerosol. These secretions can infect us through our mouth, nose and eyes.
Like other coronaviruses, SARS-CoV-2 has the typical glycoprotein spikes as well as other polyproteins and nucleoproteins. These spikes of SARS-CoV-2 have a three-dimensional shape and achieve a connection with human cells through a receptor called ACE2.
It is therefore the ACE2 protein present in our cells that the new coronavirus "grabs" to enter human cells, i.e. the new coronavirus uses a needle-shaped protein that attaches itself to ACE2 as a key in the lock. This union literally opens the door of the human cell so that the virus can introduce its genetic material into it. The human cell machine confuses this material -viral RNA- with its own RNA, and begins to follow the instructions it contains to make viral proteins. In a matter of hours, there are millions of copies of viral RNA, from which copies of the virus are made, which destroy the cell and begin to infect others.
ACE2 protein plays a key role in the production of angiotensin, a molecule that controls blood pressure. This protein exists in the cells of the lungs, heart, kidneys and intestines, and its lack causes cardiovascular diseases.
With age there are more ACE2 receptors available, which may be an explanation for the greater vulnerability of older people to contracting the disease. Also smokers or people with cardiovascular problems have more ACE2 receptors, which may justify their greater propensity to develop the disease.
Older people with chronic diseases also have a more depressed immune system, which also justifies the fact that the disease typically develops in them more severely than in younger, healthier people.
If there is no vaccine or drugs duly approved for the treatment of the disease, we must of course avoid contracting it, and that means that we know its weaknesses better.
Please observe the figure
The virus is a monoparticle that has a very fragile structure (envelope). It is precisely the "lipid bilayer" which is a protective layer made of fat that protects the genetic material of the virus (RNA - Ribonucleic Acid) that we can and should attack. Not being a living being we cannot kill the Coronavirus, but we can inactivate it, that is to say, inhibit it from binding to our cells and therefore contaminating us.
This layer is easily attacked with products that contain soap in their composition. Also products containing ethyl alcohol, with concentrations above 70%, attack this layer of fat completely inactivating the virus.
We also know that sick people, symptomatic or not, spread the disease through the secretions of their mouth and nose, particularly when they cough, sneeze and even when they talk. These droplets can be projected onto surfaces that can then infect other people.
Survival times of Coronaviruses on surfaces can be from a few minutes to several hours or days, depending on the materials that constitute the surface.
Soap is a compound resulting from a basic hydrolysis of lipids, i.e. it is formed from a chemical reaction of a fatty acid ester with a strong base. This reaction is called saponification.
It is now known to the scientific community that soap products are the best solution for hand washing.
Studies tell us that the correct hand washing with a product containing a soap is four times more effective in inactivating the Coronavirus than simple disinfection with an antiseptic.
The frequent and efficient hygienization of the spaces we frequent and share with others is a critical factor of the success in fighting the Pandemic in question.
THE PRODUCTS WE HAVE AVAILABLE FOR THIS FIGHT
Of the products it CIMAImanufactures and markets, the one we most advise for hand washing is our INDUCIM SU.
This product has in its constitution soap and disinfectants based on ammonium quaternaries. Not being an antiseptic, it can be used for washing and disinfecting the hands, complying with the DGS and WHO recommendations of times and form of washing.
As an antiseptic for the hands, the CIMAI produces the ROSECIM for over 25 years. This is an alcohol-based product and serves to disinfect hands, in addition to washing them, or when we are simply unable to wash them. The ROSECIM also has hand conditioners and other active disinfectants. This product has been widely used in the fight against influenza A (disease caused by the H1N1 virus).
For surfaces is recognized by WHO and DGS the action of chlorine as having strong and rapid action in the destruction of the action of all Coronaviruses, including SARS-CoV-2. CIMAI sells CLORO LÍQUIDO (hipoclorito de sódio a 13%), (13% sodium hypochlorite), a powerful disinfectant against several micro-organisms, in particular SARS-COV-2, which can be used for disinfection of surfaces and installations. We also have the products CIM FOAM CLOROL and PERCIM, both with a degreasing component, for the cleaning of fats and protein load, and disinfection through the strong concentration of active chlorine, which inactivates, by oxidation, the various types of Coronavirus. CIM FOAM CLOROL, with higher chlorine concentration, was developed for washing and disinfecting dirtier areas with a higher risk of contamination, being PERCIM most suitable for daily cleaning and disinfection of surfaces in: homes, schools, prisons, offices, canteens, restaurants, changing rooms, bathrooms, kitchens, etc...
For small surfaces such as work desks, countertops, meeting tables, chairs, various utensils, etc..., we recommend our CIM KA, which is a combination of disinfectants, the main constituent of which is ethyl alcohol.
For sanitizing surfaces where it is not recommended to use chlorine-based products, we have the SOLCIM, it's a detergent formulated with soap, which allows deep cleaning of floors, tables, telephones, and various utensils.
Within the same hygienic criteria, now for manual dishwashing, through products that eliminate lipids (fat) we have the LAVECIM SU, also formulated from a saponification reaction.
Finally, and for the safe washing of laundry by machine, the CIMAImanufactures a laundry detergent, the SKY SURF,based on soap.
The correct hygienization of clothes is very important to eliminate potential enveloped viruses, such as Coronavirus.
For any questions, please contact us: firstname.lastname@example.org
P.S: Clarify your doubts about hand disinfection with this video, made by LSM Audiovisuals. Dermatologist - Helena Toda Brito. Feature: https://lifestyle.sapo.pt/saude/noticias-saude/artigos/o-desinfetante-de-maos-pode-ser-feito-em-casa-ou-substituido-por-alcool-duvidas-frequentes-explicadas-por-uma-medica